Chronology/Time: You should use a time series (a line chart/bar chart/ whichever you are comfortable with, with the x axis of time)
Geographic: Use a map. However, maps should be annotated or complemented with a graph/chart.
Comparing Values: When you are showing the highest or lowest value use a bar chart.
Percentages: Use a pie chart. There are multiple creative variations of this. But be careful about making your data boring when you use too much of pie charts.
Separately, keep the centre of the pie chart clear because that is the point of reference where people judge the angle. Do not use more than 5-7 fields of data, that would be the job of another data visualisation. Use pie chart when all of the elements do not overlap and provide a complete picture.
Percentage to completion: Use a gauge/thermometer etc to reach the goal….
Scales: Use comparison by size in order to create the most visually effective comparison.
There are plenty more ways but these are some to get you started!